Dichogamy and self-incompatibility are the two natural strategies evolved by plants to prevent self-fertilization.
Self-pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male organ or stamen of a flower to the female organ or pistil of the same flower.
It can also refer to the process whereby a plant’s own pollen fertilizes its ovules.
Strategies That Prevent Self-pollination
What is Dichogamy?
Dichogamy is a term used in botany to describe the condition of a flower in which the stamens and pistils mature at different times.
This usually means that the anthers (the sacs that produce pollen) mature before the stigma (the sticky surface where pollen lands). In order to prevent self-fertilization, flowers with dichogamous stamens must be pollinated by an outside agent, such as bees.
This is one strategy that plants have evolved in order to increase their probability of producing offspring.
If the stamens and pistils mature at the same time, then the pollen can easily fertilize the ovules and create a seed.
However, if they mature at different times, then there is a greater chance that the pollen will be transferred to another flower before it can fertilize the ovules in the first flower.
What is self-incompatibility?
Self-incompatibility is a term used in botany to describe a condition in which the pollen from one flower is not able to fertilize the ovules of that same flower.
This occurs when there is a mismatch between the genetic make-up of the pollen and the pistil. In order for fertilization to take place, the genetic make-up of the pollen and pistil must be compatible.
Self-incompatibility is a common mechanism used by plants to prevent self-pollination.
If two flowers of the same plant were to fertilize each other, then the resulting seed would have the same genetic make-up as the parent plant.
This would not be beneficial for the plant, as it would produce offspring that are genetically identical to itself.
By using self-incompatibility, plants can ensure that their offspring are genetically diverse and thus more likely to survive in a changing environment.
What is an example of a Dichogamy plant?
An example of a dichogamous plant is the common snapdragon. The anthers (the sacs that produce pollen) mature before the stigma (the sticky surface where pollen lands), so the flowers must be pollinated by an outside agent, such as bees.
What is an example of a self-incompatibility plant?
One example of a self-incompatibility plant is the apple. If two apple flowers were to fertilize each other, the resulting seed would not be able to produce a viable apple tree. This is because the pollen and pistil of an apple are genetically incompatible.