Fertilization in flowers occurs when the pollen from the stamen is transferred to the pistil.
The pollen contains the male chromosomes, and the pistil contains the female chromosomes.
When they combine, fertilization occurs and seed is formed. During fertilization, the sperm cells from the pollen travel down the tube of the pistil to the ovules.
There, they fertilize the egg cells and form a zygote.
Post-fertilization changes in a flower
- After fertilization, the petals of the flower often close up and the sepals fall off
- The zygote begins to divide and grow into an embryo
- The embryo develops into a seed
- The ovary of the flower becomes a fruit
- The seed is expelled from the fruit and begins to grow into a new plant
These changes occur over a period of weeks or months, and the entire process is known as flowering.
The flowering plants are the largest and most diverse group of plants on Earth and include everything from roses to oak trees.
They reproduce by means of flowers, which are the reproductive organs of the plant.